The Principles of Gorean Thought – Part VIII a)

This is part of the work on the Principles of Gorean Thought – A Primer

8) Gorean Beliefs and a Definition of the Gorean Character – Introduction

What is the definitive source for what makes a person Gorean?

The definitive source?

I would think that the DEFINITIVE source would be John Norman, who, after all, created the world of Gor in the first place. Yes?

So… let’s go for that definitive answer. Or at least, the one which makes the most sense since it comes straight from the Gor books themselves.

If anyone examines the quotes below, all of which SPECIFICALLY allude to what Goreans believe (according to Norman), what Goreans do (according to Norman), or what Goreans are (according to Norman), and STILL refutes the author’s own definition of what is, and isn’t, Gorean, well, then, there’s not much I can do about that.

The evidence is there. Straight from the source of the whole thing, defined by its inventor.

To deny it is not only illogical, but, in a certain sense, somewhat deluded.

So… here we go. The following selection of quotes is made up of excerpts from the Gor books in which Norman either directly says “Goreans are…” or “Most Goreans believe…”, or whatever. Or those in which he compares and contrasts Earth beliefs against common Gorean ones, or in which he illustrates the reasons behind Gorean cultural mores and philosophical beliefs. They are presented in the same order as they appeared in the books, with included page numbers for reference or to enable a reader to research them further for context.

“We met in the centre of the room and embraced. I wept, and he did, too, without shame. I learned later that on this alien world a strongman may feel and express emotions, and that the hypocrisy of constraint is not honoured on this planet as it is on mine.”

pg.25, Tarnsman of Gor

“For the Gorean, though he seldom speaks of these things, a city is more than brick and marble, cylinders and bridges. It is not simply a place, a geographical location in which men have seen fit to build their dwellings, a collection of structures where they may conveniently conduct their affairs. The Gorean senses, or believes, that a city cannot be simply identified with its material elements, which undergo their transformations even as do the cells of a human body. For them a city is almost a living thing, or more than a living thing. It is an entity with a history, as stones and rivers do not have history; it is an entity with a tradition, a heritage, customs, practices, character, intentions, hopes. When a Gorean says, for example, that he is of Ar, or Ko-ro-ba, he is doing a great deal more than informing you of his place of residence. The Goreans, generally, though there are exceptions, particularly the Caste of Initiates, do not believe in immortality. Accordingly, to be of a city is, in a sense, to have been a part of something less perishable than oneself, something divine in the sense of undying. Of course, as every Gorean knows, cities too are mortal, for cities can be destroyed as well as men. And this perhaps makes them love their cities the more, for they know that their city, like themselves, is subject to mortal termination.”

pg.22, Outlaw of Gor

“I was puzzled that the garb, like the helmet and shield, bore no insignia. This was contrary to the ways of Gor, for normally only the habiliments of outlaws and exiles, men without a city, lack the identifying devices of which the Gorean is so proud.”

pg.24, Outlaw of Gor

“The Gorean, having little idea of progress in our sense, takes great care in building and workmanship. What he builds he expects men to use until the storms of time have worn it to dust.”

pg.25, Outlaw of Gor

“According to the Gorean way of thinking pity humiliates both he who pities and he who is pitied. According to the Gorean way, one may love but one may not pity.”

pg. 31, Outlaw of Gor

“Unlike the men of Earth, the Gorean has little sensitivity to race, but much to language and city.”

pg.48, Outlaw of Gor

“The Gorean is suspicious of the stranger, particularly in the vicinity of his native walls.”

pg. 49, Outlaw of Gor

“Perhaps it should only be added that the Gorean master, though often strict, is seldom cruel. The girl knows, if she pleases him, her lot will be an easy one. She will almost never encounter sadism or wanton cruelty, for the psychological environment that tends to breed these diseases is largely absent on Gor.”

pg. 53-54, Outlaw of Gor

“Paradoxically, the Gorean, who seems to think so little of women in some respects, celebrates them extravagantly in others. The Gorean is extremely sensitive to beauty; it gladdens his heart, and his songs and art are often paeans to its glory.”

pg. 54, Outlaw of Gor

“…I was confident they [the downtrodden men of Tharna] could accomplish what they set their minds to, that they might succeed in tasks which the average Gorean male, with his impatience and lightness of heart, would simply abandon as distasteful or not worth the effort, for the average Gorean male, it must be admitted, tends to regard the joys of life somewhat more highly than its duties.”

pg.65, Outlaw of Gor

“I once asked a Gorean hunter whom I had met in Ar why the larl was hunted at all. I have never forgotten his reply. `Because it is beautiful,’ he said, `and dangerous, and because we are Goreans.’”

pg.20, Priest-Kings of Gor

“In all these kneeling positions, incidentally, even that of the Pleasure Slave, the Gorean woman carries herself well; her back is straight and her chin is high. She tends to be vital and beautiful to look upon.”

pg.46-47, Priest Kings of Gor

“The Tuchuks, not unlike Goreans in general, are fond of gambling.”

pg.60, Nomads of Gor

“The Gorean girl is, even if free, accustomed to slavery; she will perhaps own one or more slaves herself; she knows that she is weaker than men and what this can mean; she knows that cities fall and caravans are plundered; she knows she might even, by a sufficiently bold warrior, be captured in her own quarters and, bound and hooded, be carried by tarnback over the wall of her own city.”

pg.63, Nomads of Gor

“Aphris of Turia, pleased with herself, assumed her place between the merchant and Kamchak, kneeling back on her heels in the position of the Gorean Free Woman. Her back was very straight and her head high, in the Gorean fashion.”

pg.94, Nomads of Gor

“Goreans do not generally favor begging, and some regard it as na insult that there should be such, an insult to them and their city.”

pg.12, Assassin of Gor

“Goreans are extremely sensitive about names, and who may speak them.”

pg.12, Assassin of Gor

“I supposed the requirements of the slaves were high. Each of the girls, I suspected, would be vital and much alive. Each of them I knew was beautiful. Each of them I suspected would be intelligent, for Goreans, as the men of Earth commonly do not, celebrate quickness of mind and alertness in a girl.”

pg.125, Assassin of Gor

“The Goreans claim that in each woman there is a free companion, proud and beautiful, worthy and noble, and in each, too, a slave girl. The companion seeks for her companion; the slave girl for her master. It is further said, that on the couch, the Gorean girl, whether slave or free, who has had the experience, who has tried all loves, begs for a master. She wishes to belong completely to a man, withholding nothing, permitted to withhold nothing. ”

pg.102, Hunters of Gor

“Goreans, in their simplistic fashion, often contend, categorically, that man is naturally free and woman is naturally slave. But even for them the issues are far more complex than these simple formulations would suggest. For example, there is no higher person, nor one more respected, than the Gorean free woman… Goreans do believe, however, that every woman has a natural master or set of masters, with respect to whom she could not help but be a complete and passionate slave girl. These men occur in her dreams and fantasies. She lives in terror that she might meet one in real life.”

p.311, Hunters of Gor

“The Morality of Earth, from the Gorean point of view, is a morality which would be viewed as more appropriate to slaves that free men. It would be seen in terms of the envy and resentment of inferiors for their superiors. It lays great stress on equalities and being humble and being pleasant and avoiding friction and being ingratiating and small. It is a morality in the best interest of slaves, who would be only too eager to be regarded as the equals of others. We are all the same. That is the hope of slaves; that is what it is in their interest to convince others of. The Gorean morality on the other hand is more one if inequalities, based on the assumption that individuals are not the same, but quite different in many ways. It might be said to be, though this is over simple, a morality of masters. Guilt is almost unknown in Gorean morality, though shame and anger are not. Many Earth moralities encourage resignation and accommodation; Gorean morality is bent more toward conquest and defiance; many Earth moralities encourage tenderness, pity and gentleness, sweetness; Gorean morality encourages honour, courage, hardness and strength. To Gorean morality many Earth moralities might ask, `Why so hard?’ To these earth moralities, The Gorean ethos might ask, `Why so soft?’”

pg.8, Marauders of Gor

“Gorean enemies, if skilled, often hold one another in high regard.”

pg.70, Marauders of Gor

“I suddenly realized the supreme power of the united Gorean will, not divided against itself, not weak, not crippled like the wills of Earth. I felt a surge of power, of unprecedented, unexpected joy. I had discovered what it was to be Gorean. I had discovered what is was, truly, to be male, to be a man. I was Gorean.”

pg.290, Marauders of Gor

“`On Earth,’ I said, `women try to be identical with men.’ `Why should that be?’ asked the man. `Perhaps because there are few men,’ I said. `The male population is small?’ he asked. `There are many males,’ I said, `but few men.’ `I find this hard to understand,’ said the slave master. I smiled. `The distinction,’ I said, `makes little sense to a Gorean.’”

p.76, Tribesmen of Gor

“There is perhaps little to be said for the Gorean world, but in it men and women are alive. It is a world which I would not willingly surrender. It is a very different world from mine; in its way, I suppose it is worse; in its way, I know it is better. It is its own place, and not another’s. It is honest and real. In it there is good air.”

p.212, Slave Girl of Gor

“Caste is important to Goreans in a way that is difficult for members of a non-caste society to understand. Though there are doubtless difficulties involved with caste structure the caste situation lends an individual identity and pride, allies him with thousands of caste brothers, and provides him with various opportunities and services.”

pg.213, Slave Girl of Gor

“Goreans commonly exhibit good taste and aesthetic sense. Indeed, good taste and aesthetic good sense, abundantly and amply displayed, harmoniously manifested, in such areas as language, architecture, dress, culture and customs, seem innately Gorean. It is a civilization informed by beauty, from the tanning and cut of a workman’s sandal to the glazing’s intermixed and fused, sensitive to light and shadow, and the time of the day, which characterize the lofty towers of her beautiful cities.”

pg.215, Slave Girl of Gor

“Gorean men have a way of looking at women which is like stripping them and putting them to their feet.”

pg. 267, Slave Girl of Gor

“The youth of Earth have no Home Stone. Citizenship, interestingly, in most Gorean cities is conferred only upon the coming of age, and only after certain examinations are passed. Further, the youth of Gor, in most cities, must be vouched for by citizens of the city, not related in blood to him, and be questioned before a committee of citizens, intent upon determining his worthiness or lack thereof to take the Home Stone of the city as his own. Citizenship in most Gorean communities is not something accrued in virtue of the accident of birth but earned in virtue of intent and application.”

pg. 394, Slave Girl of Gor

“The Gorean, in general, regards many things in a much more intense and personal way than, say, the informed man of Earth. Perhaps that is because he is the victim of a more primitive state of consciousness; perhaps, on the other hand, we have forgotten things which he has not. Perhaps the world speaks only to those who a reprepared to listen… The man of Earth thinks of the world as being essentially dead; the Gorean thinks of his world as being essentially alive… He cares for his world; it is his friend; he would not care to kill it.”

pg.29-30, Beasts of Gor

“Honour is important to Goreans, in a way that those of Earth might find it hard to understand; for example, those of Earth find it natural that men should go to war over matters of gold and riches, but not honour; the Gorean, contrariwise, is more willing to submit matters of honour to the adjudication of steel than he is matters of riches and gold; there is a simple explanation for this; honour is more important to him.”

pg.42, Beasts of Gor

“In some respects the Gorean are, perhaps, cruel. Yet they have never seen fit, through lies, to inflict suffering on children. They seem generally to me to be fond of children. Perhaps that is why they seldom hurt them. Even slave children, incidentally, are seldom abused or treated poorly, and are given much freedom, until they reach their young adulthood.”

pg.155, Beasts of Gor

“Race, incidentally, is not a serious matter generally for Goreans, perhaps because of the intermixtures of people. Language and city, and caste, however, are matters of great moment to them, and provide sufficient basis for the discriminations in which human beings take such great delight.”

pg.156, Beasts of Gor

“`Gorean men,’ I said, `you will learn, are less tolerant of pretense than the men of Earth.’”

pg.202, Beasts of Gor

“`Goreans are not men of Earth,’ I said. `They will have what they truly want from a woman, everything.’”

pg.230, Beasts of Gor

“Civilization may be predicated upon the denial of human nature; it may also be predicated upon its fulfilment. The first word that na Earth baby learns is usually, `No.’ The first word that a Gorean baby learns is commonly, `Yes.’ The machine and the flower, I suspect, will never understand one another.”

p.37, Explorers of Gor

“`Why is it,’ she asked, `that the men of Gor do not think and move in herds, like those of earth?’ `I do not know,” I said. Perhaps they are different. Perhaps the culture is different. Perhaps it has to do with the decentralization of city states, the multiplicity of tradition, the diversity of the caste codes.’ `I think the men of Gor are different,’ she said.

pg. 333-334, Explorers of Gor

“`On Gor,’ she said, `we would not even break our male slaves as the men of Earth are broken.’”

p.73, Fighting Slave of Gor

“I sensed that in Gor there was a youth and openness which had long been missing from my old world. In Gor I sensed an ambition, a freshness and hope, and sparkle, that had perhaps not been felt on Earth since the Parthenon was new. Doubtless there is much on Gor to be deplored, but I cannot bring myself to deplore it. Doubtless Goris impatient, cruel and heartless, but yet, I think, too, it is innocent. It is like the lion, impatient, cruel, heartless and innocent. It is its nature. Gor was a strong-thewed world, a new world, a world in which men might again lift their heads to the sun and laugh, a world in which they might again, sensibly, begin long journeys. It was a world of which Homer might have sung, singing of the clashing of the metals of men and the sweetness of the wine-dark sea.”

p.89, Fighting Slave of Gor

“I think the explanation for the Gorean political arrangements and attitudes is the institution of the Home Stone. It is the Home Stone which, for the Gorean, marks the centre. I think it is because of their Home Stones that the Gorean tends to think of territory as something from the inside out, so to speak, rather than from the outside in. Consider again the analogy of the circle. For the Gorean the Home Stone would mark the point of the circle’s centre. It is the Home Stone which, so to speak, determines the circle.”

pg.145, Fighting Slave of Gor

“Total warfare, with its arming of millions of men, and its broadcasts laughter of hundreds of populations, is Gorean neither in concept nor in practice. Goreans, often castigated for their cruelty, would find such monstrosities unthinkable. Cruelty on Gor, though it exists, is usually purposeful, as in attempting to bring, through discipline and privation, a young man to manhood, or in teaching a female that she is a slave.”

pg.145, Fighting Slave of Gor

“Gorean men, I had learned, are not patient with [male] silk slaves.”

pg.181, Fighting Slave of Gor

“Caste membership, for Goreans, is generally a simple matter of birth; it is not connected necessarily with the performance of certain skills, nor the attainment of a given level of proficiency in such skills.”

pg.209, Fighting Slave of Gor

“The welfare of a larger number of individuals, as the Goreans reason, correctly or incorrectly, is more important than the welfare of a smaller number of individuals.”

p.210, Fighting Slave of Gor

“Many Gorean women, in their haughtiness and pride, do not choose to have their features exposed to the common view.”

p.41, Rogue of Gor

“Goreans place few impediments in the way of the liberation of a slave female’s sexuality.”

p.186, Rogue of Gor

“`The brutes of Gor have their way with you, as it pleases them,’ I said, `and you serve them well. Do you think the men of Earth should be content with less?’ `No, Master,’ she whimpered. `If the men of Earth choose to surrender the birth right of their dominance, to exchange it for the garbage of a political perversion; if they should choose to deny their genes; if they should choose to subvert and violate the order of nature; if they should choose self-castration to manhood, that is, I suppose, their business.’ `I do not know, Master,’ she said. `Provided, of course, that they are willing to accept such penalties as anxiety, guilt, misery, frustration, sickness and shortened lifespans.’ `I do not know, Master,’ she said. `A subverted nature cannot be expected not to retaliate,’ I said. `No, Master,’ she said. `Does a man have a right to be a man?’ I asked. `I suppose so,’ she said. `I do not know.’ `And are there not hierarchies among rights, and some which take priority over others?’ `Be kind to me, Master,’ she begged. `And is not the right of a man to be a man the highest right of such a sort that man possesses?’ `Yes,’ she said. `What right takes precedence over that?’ I asked. `None, Master,’ she said. `Has man,’ I asked, `the right to bring about his own downfall, to destroy himself?’ `He has the capacity, Master,’ she whispered, `but I do not think he has that right.’ `He does not have that right,’ I told her, `for it conflicts with the higher right.’ `Yes, Master,’ she said. `Rather,’ said I, `he has, beyond rights, duties, and high among his duties is his duty to be true to himself, his duty to be a man.’ `Yes, Master,’ she said. `The denial of his manhood, then, by a man, is not only irrational, but morally pernicious. Men have not only a right to preserve their manhood, but a duty to do so.’ `Perhaps there is no such thing as manhood,’ she whispered, `or womanhood.’ `Tell that,’ I said, `to strong men and yielding women, and history.’ `Perhaps there are no such things as duties, and rights,’ she said, `perhaps there are only the words, used as the instruments of manipulative rhetoric’s, devices of conditioning, cheaper and more subtle than guns and whips.’ `That is an interesting and profound possibility,’ I said, `but then there would still remain needs and powers, forces and desires, and the facts of the world, that certain courses of action lead to certain results, and that other courses of action lead to other results. And in such a world who will argue with the larl as to whether or not it should feed, or with a man as to whether or not he should be a man? In such a world the larl hunts, and the man is a man.’”

pg.152-153, Guardsman of Gor

“The men rose as one to their feet, for Gorean men commonly stand when a free woman enters a room.”

pg.255, Guardsmen of Gor

“`To be sure,’ I said, `’ white’ in the context of ‘white-silk girl’[virginity] tends less to suggest purity and innocence to the Gorean than ignorance, naivety, and a lack of experience.”

p.205, Savages of Gor

“Musicians on Gor, that is, those of the Caste of Musicians, are seldom, if ever, enslaved. Their immunity from bondage, or practical immunity from bondage, is a matter of custom. There is a saying to the effect that those who make music must, like the tarn, and the vosk gull, be free.”

pg.297-298, Kajira of Gor

“The insignia of men, like male garments, become empty mockeries when permitted to women. This type of thing leads eventually both to demasculinization of men and the defeminisation of females, a perversion of nature disapproved of generally, correctly or incorrectly, by Goreans. ”

pg.56, Mercenaries of Gor

“The most fundamental property prized by Goreans in women, I suppose, though little is said about it, is her need for love, and her capacity for love.”

p.322, Mercenaries of Gor

“Many Gorean games, incidentally, have features which encourage the development of properties regarded as desirable in a Gorean youth, such as courage, discipline, and honour. Similarly, some of the games tend to encourage the development of audacity and leadership.”

pg.278, Mercenaries of Gor

“It is seldom wise, incidentally, to impugn, or attempt to manipulate, the honour of a Gorean.”

pg. 297, Mercenaries of Gor

“In Gorean culture, generally, it seemed to me that people stood closer to one another than I was accustomed to on Earth. In this way it was natural for men here, for example, to stand much closer to the scantily clad slave than the average man of, say, northern Europe, on Earth, would be likely to, to a woman of his area. Indeed, he usually stands so close to her that it would be easy for him to put his hands on her, and draw her to him, taking her in his arms.”

pg.156, Dancer of Gor

“On Earth, as I understand it, there are certain romantic notions about, for example, that heroes may be expected to `win’ damsels in distress, so to speak, by the performance of certain heroic behaviours which, for example, might bode little good to dragons, evil wizards, wicked knights, and such. These damsels in distress, once rescued, are then expected to elatedly bestow their fervent affectations on the blushing, bashful heroes, and so on. Needless to say, in real life, to the disappointment, and sometimes chagrin, of the blushing, bashful heroes, this denouement often fails to materialize. Although such notions are not unknown on Gor, the average Gorean tends to be somewhat more practical and business like than the average hero of such stories, if we may believe the stories. For example, the damsel of Earth, if she found herself rescued on Gor, might not have to spend a great deal of time gravely considering whether or not to bestow herself on the rescuer. She might rather find her wrists, to her surprise, being chained behind her, her clothing being removed and a rope being put on her neck. She might then find herself hurrying along on foot, beside his mount, roped by the neck to his stirrup.”

p.99-100, Renegades of Gor

“From the girl’s point of view, of course, she whose sex has in effect been hitherto denied to her, and who has hitherto encountered only men of Earth, most of whom have been sexually reduced or crippled by negativistic conditioning programs, and instructed to rejoice in the fact, Gor comes as a revelation. There they find men who, for the most part, are quite different from those they are accustomed to on Earth, strong, powerful, uninhibited, uncompromising men, men who have never been subjected to pathological conditioning programs aimed at the taming or debilitation of the male animal and its instincts, men who have never been tricked into the surrender of their natural dominance, men who have retained their sovereignty, that mighty sovereignty in nature without which they cannot be men, without which women cannot be women.”

pg.444-445, Vagabonds of Gor

“Gorean men do not surrender their birth right as males, their rightful dominance, their appropriate mastery. They do not choose to be dictated to by females.”

p.51, Magicians of Gor

“I might also mention, in passing… that many Gorean artists do not sign or otherwise identify their works. The rationale for this seems to be a conviction that what it important is the art, its power, its beauty, and so on, and not who formed it.. Indeed many Gorean artists seem to regard themselves as little more than vessels or instruments, the channels or means, the tools, say, the chisels or brushes, so to speak, by means of which the world, with its values and meanings, in its infinite diversities, in its beauties and its powers, its flowers and its storms, its laughter’s and rages, its delicacy and awesomeness, its subtlety and grandeur, expresses itself, and rejoices.”

pg.107, Magicians of Gor

“The focus of the Gorean artist, then, at least on the whole, tends to be on the work of art itself, not on himself as artist. Accordingly his attitude toward his art is less likely to be one of pride than one of gratitude. This makes sense as, in his view, it is not so much he who speaks as the world, in its many wonders, great and small, which speaks through him. He is thus commonly more concerned to express the world, and truth, than himself.”

pg.108, Magicians of Gor

“`Is not everyone to be permitted anything?’ `No,’ said Marcus, `Freedom is for the free. Others are to be kept inline, and exactly so. Society depends on divisions and order, each element stabilized perfectly in its harmonious relationship with all others.’ `You do not believe, then,’ I asked, `that everyone is the same, or must be supposed to be such, despite all evidence to the contrary, and that society thrives best as a disordered struggle?’ Marcus looked at me, startled. `No,’ I said `I see that you do not.’

pg.119, Magicians of Gor

“He was not a fellow of Earth, he was Gorean. Too, he was of the Warriors, and his codes, in a situation of this sort, their weapons drawn, entitled him, even encouraged him, to attack, and kill.”

pg.169, Magicians of Gor

“`You are still troubled,’ said Marcus. `It is like seeing a larl tricked into destroying himself,’ I said, `as though he were told that the only good larl is a sick, apologetic, self-suspecting, guilt-ridden larl. It is like vulos legislating for tarns, the end of which legislation is the death of the tarn, or its transformation into something new, something reduced, pathological and sick, celebrated then as the true tarn.’ `I do not even understand what you are saying,’ said Marcus. `That is because you are Gorean,’ I said.”

pg. 173-174, Magicians of Gor

“The Gorean tends neither to view the world as a mechanical clockwork of independent parts, as a great, regular, predictable machine, docile to equations, obedient to abstractions, nor as a game of chance, inexplicable, meaningless and random at the core. His fundamental metaphor in terms of which he would defend himself from the glory and mystery of the world is neither the machine nor the die. It is rather, if one may so speak, the stalk of grass, the rooted tree, the flower. He feels the world alive and real. He paints eyes upon his ships, that they may see their way. And if he feels so even about these vessels, then so much more the awed and reverent must he feel when he contemplates the immensity and grandeur, the beauty, the power and the mightiness within which he finds himself.”

pg. 254-255, Magicians of Gor

“It might also be noted, interestingly, that the Gorean, in spite of his awe of Priest-Kings, and the reverence he accords them, the gods of his world, does not think of them as having formed the world, nor of the world being in some sense consequent upon their will. Rather the Priest-Kings are seen as being its children, too, like sleen, and rain and man.”

pg.255, Magicians of Gor

“A last observation having to do with the tendency of some Goreans to accept illusions and such as reality is that the Gorean tends to take such things as honour and truth very seriously. Given his culture and background, his values, he is often easier to impose upon than would be many others. For example, he is likely, at least upon occasion, to be an easier mark for the fraud and charlatan than a more suspicious, cynical fellow. On the other hand, I do not encourage lying to Goreans. They do not like it.”

pg. 255, Magicians of Gor

“Goreans are not stupid. It is difficult to fool them more than once. They tend to remember… there would always be the dupes, of one sort or another, and the opportunists, and the cowards, with the irrationalizations. But, too, I speculated, there would be those of Ar to whom the Home Stone was a Home Stone, and not a mere rock, not apiece of meaningless earth.”

pg.489, Magicians of Gor

Back to The Principles of Gorean Thought – A Primer Index

Copyright © 2006, 2002, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996. Marcus of Ar. All rights reserved.

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